The application deadline for entry in September 2023 is April 28th, please see the following page for instructions on how to apply:
The full list of projects available for 2023 will be up to date on February 28th, you are invited to apply after such a date.

Should you have any enquiries regarding project applications please contact us at

AI assistive tools to predict mental wellbeing within care homes

Marwa Mahmoud (School of Computing Science) and Emily Cross (School of Psychology)

Cultivating and maintaining mental health is a significant challenge for many residents in care homes. Depression and loneliness, self isolation and low levels of life satisfaction are common among the elderly, who are also more likely to suffer from other physical health problems compared to community-dwelling elderly citizens. Many care homes do not (and can not) provide one-on-one, person-centred care due to lack of resources. This project aims to build data-driven AI models using multimodal machine learning to create a comprehensive picture of care home residents’ mental health. The aim will be to use these models to predict the emergence of potential mental health problems as early as possible, based on analysing multimodal data (audio, video, wearables) collected from care homes.

Main objectives and novelty.

There has been an increased interest in automatic detection of mental health problems over the past several years, mainly focussing on (1) signals collected from mobile phones and wearables; and (2) younger, tech-savvy populations. However, audio-visual signals provide a vast array of extra cues that can improve inference models (Lin et al. 2021, Zhang et al. 2020), but which are currently underused.
The main aims of this project are to: 1) Build a dataset of structured interviews to be collected at care homes using multimodal sensors (audio/video/wearable sensors).
2) Devise novel machine learning models that extend state-of-the-art methods to analyse and use the multimodal signal collected to predict mental health conditions.
3) Validate and evaluate the accuracy of these models via quantitative and qualitative measures of loneliness, depression and anxiety among aged care residents, as well as build a clear picture of aged care residents’ feelings and personal experience with this technology through qualitative interview methods.


This project will use experimental methods on collecting, validating and evaluating multimodal data related to mental health (Lin et. al. 2021, Laban et. al. 2021,2022). Using the collected data, it will also build on and extend state-of-the-art approaches on multimodal data representation and feature selection to devise inference models to predict and correlate with mental health conditions and risks identified within care homes.

Likely outcome and impact.

Nearly a half million UK residents currently live in care homes, representing 4% of the population older than 65, and 15% of those aged 85 and over. The onset of the global coronavirus pandemic, and resulting restrictions on face-to-face meetings with friends, family and loved ones has highlighted how fragile human mental health is when faced with even short-term restrictions to socialising, and these effects have been experienced even more acutely by older individuals living in live-in care settings (Cross and Henschel 2020) . If we are able to achieve our goals with this project, we will be able to develop tools to assist residents as well as care home staff to identify when individuals are at risk of deteriorating mental health and/or in need of extra 1:1 care or companionship from staff.


[1] Lin, W., Orton, I.,Li, Q., Pavarini, G. and Mahmoud, M. (2021). Looking At The Body: Automatic Analysis of Body Gestures and Self-Adaptors in Psychological Distress. IEEE Transaction on Affective Computing.

[2] Zhang, Z., Lin, W., Liu, M. and Mahmoud, M. (2020). Multimodal Deep Learning Framework for Mental Disorder Recognition. IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.

[3] Laban, G., Ben-Zion, Z. & Cross, E. S. (2022). Social robots for supporting post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment. Frontiers in Psychiatry (in press).

[4] Laban, G., George, J.-N., Morrison, V. & Cross, E. S. (2021). Tell me more! Assessing interactions with social robots from speech. Paladyn: Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 12(1), 136-159.

[5] Cross, E. and Henschel, A. (2020) The neuroscience of loneliness – and how technology is helping us.

An adaptive agent dialogue framework for driving sustainable dietary behaviour change

Mathieu Chollet (School of Computing Science) and Esther Papies (School of Psychology)


The food system contributes 34% of greenhouse gas emissions, the majority of which coming from animal agriculture [1] also disproportionately contributing to deforestation, water scarcity, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem pollution [2]. Despite this, most consumers are resistant to substantially reduce their meat consumption, even when considering the accompanying health benefits. Efforts to improve eating habits are traditionally approached through behaviour change counselling sessions with dieticians. Such approaches are time and resource consuming, but digital intervention alternatives lack the essential component of human interaction and social support that drives the effectiveness of behaviour change counselling [3]. Virtual agents hold the potential to fill that gap; however past approaches have typically only been loosely coupled to existing social science in behaviour change [4].

Objectives and novelty

The project will focus on designing a virtual agent dialogue framework for longitudinal behaviour change interactions rooted in an established psychological theory. The adaptive dialogue agent will be able to guide users through their journey towards dietary change, interspersing activities from behaviour change programmes with social dialogue aimed at reinforcing the user-agent relationship while simultaneously probing users’ preferences and attitudes. These preference-infering exchanges will help maintain and update user models including idiosyncratic sensitivities to key variables identified to be key drivers for transitioning to more plant-based foods [5]: Taste expectations (i.e. meat-based foods are expected to be tastier), Availability (i.e. plant-based foods are less widely available in many settings), Skills (many consumers don’t know how to prepare meat-free meals), Identity (Vegetarian/vegan social identities are not seen as positive by many consumers and contribute to the polarization of perspectives on sustainable eating) and Social Norms (consuming meat is seen as normative, and these norms are communicated through features of the food environment and others’ behaviour). These user models will further impact task-related and relationship-building tasks, altering dialogue such as agents’ food presentation strategies. A key research challenge will consist in designing dialogue policies reconciling concurrent but inter-linked dialogue goals, in this case preference-infering, relationship-building, and delivering task-related dialogue.

Methods & Timeline

After a literature review, the student will extend an existing socially-aware recipe recommender agent framework developed at UofG [6] with a baseline rule-based dialogue model for inferring user preferences and attitudes and integrating these variables to alter subsequent dialogue. The model will be used to collect initial data and train further model iterations, considering supervised/reinforcement learning approaches. The resulting dialogue models will be deployed in a series of user experiments to evaluate their effectiveness at promoting user engagement and motivation, infering accurate user models, and driving effective and long-lasting behaviour change.

Outputs and impact

The project is expected to contribute novel dialogue models and policies for human-agent interactions as well as methodological and experimental insights on technologically-mediated behaviour change frameworks. The project’s findings may further feedback into theory formation on habit change and maintenance. The project will have societal impact, both locally through deployments of the resulting behaviour change framework, and further through dissemination with academic and institutional partners.


[1] Xu, X., Sharma, P., Shu, S., Lin, T.-S., Ciais, P., Tubiello, F. N., Smith, P., Campbell, N., & Jain, A. K. (2021). Global greenhouse gas emissions from animal-based foods are twice those of plant-based foods. Nature Food, 1–9.

[2] Poore, J., & Nemecek, T. (2018). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science, 360(6392), 987–992.[4] Graça, J., Godinho, C. A., & Truninger, M. (2019). Reducing meat consumption and following plant-based diets: Current evidence and future directions to inform integrated transitions. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 91, 380–390.

[3] Schippers, M., et al. “A meta‐analysis of overall effects of weight loss interventions delivered via mobile phones and effect size differences according to delivery mode, personal contact, and intervention intensity and duration.” Obesity reviews 18.4 (2017): 450-459.

[4] Bickmore, Timothy W., et al. “A randomized controlled trial of an automated exercise coach for older adults.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 61.10 (2013): 1676-1683.

[5] Papies, E. K., Johannes, N., Daneva, T., Semyte, G., & Kauhanen, L.-L. (2020). Using consumption and reward simulations to increase the appeal of plant-based foods. Appetite, 155, 104812.

[6] Florian Pecune, Lucile Callebert, and Stacy Marsella. 2020. A Socially-Aware Conversational Recommender System for Personalized Recipe Recommendations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI ’20). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 78–86. DOI:

Deep Learning feature extraction for social interaction prediction in movies and visual cortex

Lars Muckli (School of Psychology) and Fani Deligianni (School of Computing Science)

While watching a movie, a viewer is immersed in the spatiotemporal structure of the movie’s audiovisual and high level conceptual content [Raz19]. The nature of the movies induces a natural waxing and waning of more and less social immersive content. This immersion can be exploited during brain imaging experiments to emulate as closely as possible the every-day human life experience, including brain processes involved in social perception. The human brain is a prediction machine: in addition to receiving sensory information, it actively generates sensory predictions. It implements this by creating internal models about the world which are used to predict upcoming sensory inputs. This basic but powerful concept is used in several studies in Artificial Intelligence (AI) to perform different type of predictions: from video inner-frames for video interpolation [Bao19], to irregularity detection [Sabokrou18], passing through future sound prediction [Oord18]. Despite different studies on AI focusing on how to use visual features to detect and track actors in a movie [Afouras20], it is not clear in the brain how cortical networks for social cognition involve layers in the visual cortex for processing the social interaction cues occurring between actors. Several studies suggest that biological motion recognition (the visual processing of others’ actions) is central to understanding interactions between agents and involves top-down social cognition with bottom up visual processing. We will use cortical layer specific fMRI at Ultra High Field to read brain activity during movie stimulation. Using the latest advances in Deep Learning [Bao19, Afouras20], we will study how the interaction between two people in a movie is processed, trying to analyse predictions that occur between frames. The comparison between the two representation sets, which involves the analysis of the movie video with Deep Learning and its response measured within the brain, will occur doing model comparison with Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) [Kriegeskorte08]. The work and its natural extensions will help clarify how the early visual cortex is responsible for guiding attention in social scene understanding. The student will spend time in both domains: studying and analysing the state-of-the-art methods in pose estimation and scene understanding in Artificial Intelligence. In brain imaging, they will learn how to perform a brain imaging study with fMRI: from data collection and understanding, to analysis methods. These two fields will provide a solid background in both brain imaging and artificial intelligence, teaching the student the ability to transfer skills and draw conclusions across domains.


[Afouras20] Afouras, T., Owens, A., Chung, J. S., & Zisserman, A. (2020). Self-supervised learning of audio-visual objects from video. European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2020).

[Bao19] Bao, W., Lai, W. S., Ma, C., Zhang, X., Gao, Z., & Yang, M. H. (2019). Depth-aware video frame interpolation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (pp. 3703-3712).

[Kriegeskorte08] Kriegeskorte, N., Mur, M., & Bandettini, P. A. (2008). Representational similarity analysis-connecting the branches of systems neuroscience. Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 2, 4.

[Oord18] Oord, A. V. D., Li, Y., & Vinyals, O. (2018). Representation learning with contrastive predictive coding. arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.03748.

[Raz19] Raz, G., Valente, G., Svanera, M., Benini, S., & Kovács, A. B. (2019). A Robust Neural Fingerprint of Cinematic Shot-Scale. Projections, 13(3), 23-52.

[Sabokrou18] Sabokrou, M., Pourreza, M., Fayyaz, M., Entezari, R., Fathy, M., Gall, J., & Adeli, E. (2018, December). Avid: Adversarial visual irregularity detection. In Asian Conference on Computer Vision (pp. 488-505). Springer, Cham.

Designing Mindful Intervention with Therapeutic Music on Earables to Manage Occupational Fatigue

Fahim Kawsar (Nokia Bell Labs) and Tanaya Guha (School of Computing Science)

Remember the moments when you find yourself tweaking the same line of code over and over or find yourself reading the same paragraph again and again! Those are the moments when your brain was overtaxed or – clinically – you had an acute mental fatigue episode. While effective fatigue mitigation strategy is a subject of intense research, recent studies have shown that therapeutic music can help mitigate fatigue and the associated sleep disorder and memory decline. In this research, we ask – what contributes to mental fatigue and aspire to devise techniques to measure these factors using sensory earables accurately? Next, we ask what makes music therapeutic and aim to study therapeutic features of music towards the automatic transformation of songs and music to their therapeutic versions. Finally, we want to bring these two facets together, i.e., identifying and predicting fatigue episodes and contextually offering mindful intervention to help manage fatigue with therapeutic music. We will leverage sensory earables for modeling fatigue building upon observed biomarkers and for real-time generation and playback of therapeutic music using acoustic channels. We will evaluate the developed solution initially in controlled lab settings followed by ecologically valid in-the-wild settings assessing both efficacy and usability of the solution. We anticipate, our findings will uncover a set of unique physiological dynamics that explain why we feel what we feel and advocate the principles to design a practical fatigue management toolkit with earables.


Fahim Kawsar, Chulhong Min, Akhil Mathur, and Alessandro Montanari,. “Earables for Personal-scale Behaviour Analytics”, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Volume: 17, Issue: 3, 2018

Andrea Ferlini, Alessandro Montanari, Chulhong Min, Hongwei Li, Ugo Sassi,and Fahim Kawsar. “In-EarPPG for Vital Signs”, IEEE Pervasive Computing, 2021

Greer et al. A Multimodal View into Music’s Effect on Human Neural, Physiological, and Emotional Experience. In Proceedings of the 27th ACM International Conference on Multimedia (MM ’19). 167–175. DOI:

Digital user representations and perspective taking in mediated communication

Dale Barr (School of Psychology) and Mary Ellen Foster (School of Computing Science)

Human social interaction is increasingly mediated by technology, with many of the signals present in traditional face-to-face interaction being replaced by digital representations (e.g., avatars, nameplates, and emojis). To communicate successfully, participants in a conversational interaction must keep track of the identities of their co-participants, as well as the “common ground” they share with each—the dynamically changing set of mutually held beliefs, knowledge, and suppositions. Perceptual representations of interlocutors may serve as important memory cues to shared information in communicative interaction (Horton & Gerrig, 2016; O’Shea, Martin, & Barr, in press). Our main question concerns how digital representations of users across different interaction modalities (text, voice, video chat) influence the development of and access to common ground during communication. To examine the impact of digital user representations on real-time language production and comprehension, the project will use a variety of behavioral methods including visual world eye-tracking (Tanenhaus, et al. 1995), latency measures, as well as analysis of speech/text content. In the first phase of the project, we will examine how well people can keep track of who said what during a discourse depending on the abstract versus rich nature of user representations (e.g., from abstract symbols to dynamic avatar-based user representations), and how these representations impact people’s ability to tailor messages to their interlocutors, as well as to correctly interpret a communicator’s intended meaning. For example, in one such study, we will test participants’ ability to track “conceptual pacts” (Brennan & Clark, 1996) with a pair of interlocutors during an interactive task where each partner appears (1) through a video stream; (2) as an animated avatar; or (3) as a static user icon. In the second phase, we will examine whether the nature of the user representation during encoding affects the long-term retention of common ground information. In support of the behavioural experiments, this project will also involve developing a range of conversational agents, both embodied and speech-only, and defining appropriate behaviour models to allow those agents to take part in the studies. The defined behaviour will incorporate both verbal interaction as well as non-verbal actions, to replicate the full richness of human face-to-face conversation (Foster, 2019; Bavelas et al., 1997). Insights and techniques developed during the project are intended to improve interfaces for computer-mediated human communication.


  1. Bavelas, J. B., Hutchinson, S., Kenwood, C., & Matheson, D. H. (1997). Using Face-to-face Dialogue as a Standard for Other Communication Systems. Canadian Journal of Communication, 22(1).
  2. Brennan, S. E., & Clark, H. H. (1996). Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1482.
  3. Foster, M. E. (2019). Face-to-face conversation: why embodiment matters for conversational user interfaces. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Conversational User Interfaces – CUI ’19. the 1st International Conference.
  4. Horton, W. S., & Gerrig, R. J. (2016). Revisiting the memory‐based processing approach to common ground. Topics in Cognitive Science, 8, 780-795.
  5. O’Shea, K. J., Martin, C. R., & Barr, D. J. (2021). Ordinary memory processes in the design of referring expressions. Journal of Memory and Language, 117, 104186.
  6. Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., Eberhard, K. M., & Sedivy, J. C. (1995). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632-1634.

Enhancing Social Interactions via Physiologically-Informed AI

Marios Philiastides (School of Psychology) and Alessandro Vinciarelli (School of Computing Science).

Over the past few years major developments in machine learning (ML) have enabled important advancements in artificial intelligence (AI). Firstly, the field of deep learning (DL) – which has enabled models to learn complex input-output functions (e.g. pixels in an image mapped onto object categories), has emerged as a major player in this area. DL builds upon neural network theory and design architectures, expanding these in ways that enable more complex function approximations. The second major advance in ML has combined advances in DL with reinforcement learning (RL) to enable new AI systems for learning state-action policies – in what is often referred to as deep reinforcement learning (DRL) – to enhance human performance in complex tasks. Despite these advancements, however, critical challenges still exist in incorporating AI into a team with human(s). One of the most important challenges is the need to understand how humans value intermediate decisions (i.e. before they generate a behaviour) through internal models of their confidence, expected reward, risk etc. Critically, such information about human decision-making is not only expressed through overt behaviour, such as speech or action, but more subtlety through physiological changes, small changes in facial expression and posture etc. Socially and emotionally intelligent people are excellent at picking up on this information to infer the current disposition of one another and to guide their decisions and social interactions. In this project, we propose to develop a physiologically-informed AI platform, utilizing neural and systemic physiological information (e.g. arousal, stress) ([Fou15][Pis17][Ghe18]) together with affective cues from facial features ([Vin09][Bal16]) to infer latent cognitive and emotional states from humans interacting in a series of social decision-making tasks (e.g. trust game, prisoner’s dilemma etc). Specifically, we will use these latent states to generate rich reinforcement signals to train AI agents (specifically DRL) and allow them to develop a “theory of mind” ([Pre78][Fri05]) in order to make predictions about upcoming human behaviour. The ultimate goal of this project is to deliver advancements towards “closing-the-loop”, whereby the AI agent feeds-back its own predictions to the human players in order to optimise behaviour and social interactions.


[Ghe18] S Gherman, MG Philiastides, “Human VMPFC encodes early signatures of confidence in perceptual decisions”, eLife, 7: e38293, 2018.

[Pis17] MA Pisauro, E Fouragnan, C Retzler, MG Philiastides, “Neural correlates of evidence accumulation during value-based decisions revealed via simultaneous EEG-fMRI”, Nature Communications, 8: 15808, 2017.

[Fou15] E Fouragnan, C Retzler, KJ Mullinger, MG Philiastides, “Two spatiotemporally distinct value systems shape reward-based learning in the human brain”, Nature Communications, 6: 8107, 2015. [Vin09] A.Vinciarelli, M.Pantic, and H.Bourlard, “Social Signal Processing: Survey of an Emerging Domain“, Image and Vision Computing Journal, Vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1743-1759, 2009.

[Bal16] T.Baltrušaitis, P.Robinson, and L.-P. Morency. “Openface: an open source facial behavior analysis toolkit.” Proceedings of the IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, 2016.

[Pre78] D. Premack, G. Woodruff, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?”, Behavioral and brain sciences Vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 515-526, 1978. [Fri05] C. Frith, U. Frith, “Theory of Mind”, Current Biology Vol. 15, no. 17, R644-646, 2005.

Evaluating and Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction for Multiple Diverse Users in Real-World Contexts

Mary Ellen Foster (School of Computing Science) and Jane Stuart Smith (School of Critical Studies)

The increasing availability of socially-intelligent robots with functionality for a range of purposes, from guidance in museums [Geh15], to companionship for the elderly [Heb16], has motivated a growing number of studies attempting to evaluate and enhance Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). But, as Honig and Oron-Gilad’s review of recent work on understanding and resolving failures in HRI observes [Hon18], most research has focussed on technical ways of improving robot reliability. They argue that progress requires a “holistic approach” in which “[t]he technical knowledge of hardware and software must be integrated with cognitive aspects of information processing, psychological knowledge of interaction dynamics, and domain-specific knowledge of the user, the robot, the target application, and the environment” (p.16). Honig and Oron-Gilad point to a particular need to improve the ecological validity of evaluating user communication in HRI, by moving away from experimental, single-person environments, with low-relevance tasks, mainly with younger adult users, to more natural settings, with users of different social profiles and communication strategies, where the outcome of successful HRI matters.

The main contribution of this PhD project is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and enhancing communication efficacy of HRI, by combining state-of-the-art social robotics with theory and methods from socially-informed linguistics [Cou14] and conversation analysis [Cli16]. Specifically, the project aims to deploy a state-of-the-art HRI system similar to the recent MultiModal Mall Entertainment Robot [Fos16], which was successfully deployed in a Finnish shopping mall for 14 weeks in the autumn of 2019 [Fos19]. Deploying a robot in a public context requires an interaction model which is socially acceptable, helpful and entertaining for multiple, diverse users in a real-world context. As part of the project, a similar social robot system will be developed and deployed in a new sociolinguistic and educational context in The Hunterian, the Museum and Art Gallery at the University of Glasgow. Glasgow is Scotland’s largest, and most socially and ethnically-diverse city, and deployment in The Hunterian provides a unique opportunity to test HRI with users from a wide range of demographic backgrounds. The robot deployments will continue throughout the PhD project in order for the impact of any technical and design modifications to be assessed.

Project objectives are to:

  • Carry out a series of sociolinguistically-informed observational studies of HRI in situ with users from a range of social, ethnic, and language backgrounds, using direct and indirect methods
  • Identify the minimal requirements (dialogue, non-verbal, other) to optimise HRI in this context, and thereby enhance user experience and engagement, also considering indices such as visitor surveys and attendance
  • Implement the identified modifications to the robot system, and re-evaluate with new users.


[Cli16] Clift, R. (2016). Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[Cou14] Coupland, N., Sarangi, S., & Candlin, C. N. (2014). Sociolinguistics and social theory. Routledge.

[Fos16] Foster M.E., Alami, R., Gestranius, O., Lemon, O., Niemela, M., Odobez, J-M., Pandey, A.M. (2016) The MuMMER Project: Engaging Human-Robot Interaction in Real-World Public Spaces. In: Agah A., Cabibihan J., Howard A., Salichs M., He H. (eds) Social Robotics. ICSR 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9979. Springer, Cham

[Fos19] Foster M.E. et al. (2019) MuMMER: Socially Intelligent Human-Robot Interaction in Public Spaces. In Proceedings of AI-HRI 2019.

[Geh15] Gehle R., Pitsch K., Dankert T., Wrede S. (2015). Trouble-based group dynamics in real-world HRI – Reactions on unexpected next moves of a museum guide robot., in 24th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2015 (Kobe), 407–412.

[Heb16] Hebesberger, D., Dondrup, C., Koertner, T., Gisinger, C., Pripfl, J. (2016).Lessonslearned from the deployment of a long-term autonomous robot as companion inphysical therapy for older adults with dementia: A mixed methods study. In: TheEleventh ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, 27–34

[Hon18] Honig, S., & Oron-Gilad, T. (2018). Understanding and Resolving Failures in Human-Robot Interaction: Literature Review and Model Development. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 861.

Learning to Play: Assessing Music Playing Skill from AudioVisual Data

Tanaya Guha (School of Computing Science) and Subarna Tripathi (Intel Labs San Diego)

Motivation & novelty:

Humans can often assess how well someone performs at a given task simply by watching (and hearing) them in action. The task of ‘skill assessment’, if automated, can potentially create assistive technology for humans to learn and practice independently, achieving eventual mastery. Although several learning apps and tools are available these days, few can offer automated feedback on the learners’ skill level.

Aims and methodology:

This project will develop a multimodal (audiovisual) AI tool to assess human skills from video streams accompanied with audio. In particular, our aim is to assess the skill of a learner playing a musical instrument using both audio and video as inputs. This is a fine-grained video understanding problem, where the input videos have similar actions while audio could be different. The project will develop new deep learning models to combine information from the two modalities that can attend to the modalities spatially and temporally with appropriate attention. A relevant database will need to be curated from YouTube and labeled in a semi-automated fashion.

Alignment with industrial interests:

Multimodal sensing and sense-making technologies are at the heart of Intel’s effort to build smart and personalized learning space. For example, Intel’s deployment of such technologies in ‘Kid Space’ showed encouraging results in terms of students’ engagement and learning effectiveness.


This is envisioned as a full-time PhD project involving the following activities: Literature survey, database curation, baseline model development, new model development, testing and evaluation, dissemination of results (e.g., publication, presentation) and thesis writing.

Desired skills:

Python, Machine Learning, prior experience of working with video/audio.


[1] Doughty et al., ‘The Pros and Cons: Rank-aware Temporal Attention for Skill Determination in Long Videos’, CVPR 2019.

[2] Parmar and Morris, ‘What and how well you performed? A multitask approach to action quality assessment,’ in Proc. CVPR 2019.

[3] Aslan et al. Exploring Kid Space in the wild: a preliminary study of multimodal and immersive collaborative play-based.

Optimizing habit development with adaptive digital interventions

Esther Papies (School of Psychology) and Mark Bowles (PUL Hydration)

Aims and Objectives

This project will establish key features of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs; Nahum-Shani et al., 2018) that contribute to habit formation. While JITAIs have been shown to be more effective than statically controlled interventions (Wang & Miller, 2020), little is known about the precise interaction of adaptive intervention features and psychological processes that lead to lasting health habits. The research will be conducted in the domain of hydration, i.e., water drinking. Water drinking is an ideal domain to study the effect of JITAIs, given that water drinking is a relatively simple health behaviour, compared to, for example, eating or physical activity; water drinking needs to happen frequently each day, so that it is susceptible to habit formation; and indeed, healthy water drinkers seem to rely heavily on habits (Rodger et al., 2021). However, many people are underhydrated, with implications for cognitive functioning, mood, and physical health (e.g., risk of diabetes, overweight, kidney damage; see Muñoz et al., 2015; Perrier et al., 2020).

Working with the PUL smartcap and accompanying smartphone app, we will examine how habit formation occurs using an intervention that provides goal setting, monitoring, feedback, as well as situated and personalized reminders. We will address questions such as: Which intervention features predict habit formation, and how can the intervention be optimized to facilitate this process? Given that habits form in response to stable context cues, do reminders at specific, fixed times facilitate habit formation compared to “smart”, adaptive reminders? What is the role of rewarding feedback in habit formation and habit maintenance (cf. Papies et al., 2020)? Does the intervention lead to “specific” habit formation (i.e., drinking water with the PUL device) or to “generalized” habit formation (i.e., drinking water)? Which intervention features (e.g., dynamic goals, smart reminders, visual reward signals) or intervention effects (e.g., reduced dehydration symptoms) predict continued engagement with the app? In addressing these questions, we will conduct research that speaks to JITAI development, as well as to fundamental psychological questions about situated learning and habit change.

Methods, Outputs, and Impact

We will work closely with the PUL Hydration team to conduct both qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods experimental studies to assess the questions outlined above in real-life settings. We will present and publish our findings as three empirical subprojects (averageing one per year) in both Computer Science and Psychology conferences and journals. In addition to academic and industry users, the findings on how to develop healthy water drinking habits will be of interest to the general public. The Healthy Cognition Lab regularly engages in knowledge exchange activities, which the student would participate in. We also regularly engage with industry and third-sector partners, such as Danone or the British Dietetic Association. Finally, the student on this project would work closely with other ECR lab members working on hydration, and on healthy and sustainable eating behaviours.


Muñoz, C. X., Johnson, E. C., McKenzie, A. L., Guelinckx, I., Graverholt, G., Casa, D. J., … Armstrong, L. E. (2015). Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women. Appetite, 92, 81–86.

Nahum-Shani, I., Smith, S. N., Spring, B. J., Collins, L. M., Witkiewitz, K., Tewari, A., & Murphy, S. A. (2018). Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 52(6), 446–462.

Papies, E. K., Barsalou, L. W., & Rusz, D. (2020). Understanding Desire for Food and Drink: A Grounded-Cognition Approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(2), 193–198.

Perrier, E. T., Armstrong, L. E., Bottin, J. H., Clark, W. F., Dolci, A., Guelinckx, I., Iroz, A., Kavouras, S. A., Lang, F., Lieberman, H. R., Melander, O., Morin, C., Seksek, I., Stookey, J. D., Tack, I., Vanhaecke, T., Vecchio, M., & Péronnet, F. (2020). Hydration for health hypothesis: A narrative review of supporting evidence. European Journal of Nutrition.

Rodger, A., Wehbe, L. H., & Papies, E. K. (2021). “I know it’s just pouring it from the tap, but it’s not easy”: Motivational processes that underlie water drinking. Appetite, 164, 105249.

Wang, L., & Miller, L. C. (2020). Just-in-the-Moment Adaptive Interventions (JITAI): A Meta-Analytical Review. Health Communication, 35(12), 1531–1544.

Sharing the road: Cyclists and automated vehicles

Steve Brewster (School of Computing Science) and Frank Pollick (School of Psychology).

Automated vehicles must share the road with pedestrians and cyclists, and drive safely around them. Autonomous cars, therefore, must have some form of social intelligence if they are to function correctly around other road users. There has been work looking at how pedestrians may interact with future autonomous vehicles [ROT15] and potential solutions have been proposed (e.g. displays on the outside of cars to indicate that the car has seen the pedestrian). However, there has been little work on automated cars and cyclists. When there is no driver in the car, social cues such as eye contact, waving, etc., are lost [ROT15]. This changes the social interaction between the car and the cyclist, and may cause accidents if it is no longer clear, for example, who should proceed. Automated cars also behave differently to cars driven by humans, e.g. they may appear more cautious in their driving, which the cyclist may misinterpret. The aim of this project is to study the social cues used by drivers and cyclists, and create multimodal solutions that can enable safe cycling around autonomous vehicles. The first stage of the work will be observation of the communication between human drivers and cyclists through literature review and fieldwork. The second stage will be to build a bike into our driving simulator [MAT19] so that we can test interactions between cyclists and drivers safely in a simulation. We will then start to look at how we can facilitate the social interaction between autonomous cars and cyclists. This will potentially involve visual displays on cars or audio feedback from them, to indicate state information to cyclists nearby (eg whether they have been detected, whether the car is letting the cyclist go ahead). We will also investigate interactions and displays for cyclists, for example multimodal displays in cycling helmets [MAT19] to give them information about car state (which could be collected by V2X software on the cyclist’s phone, for example). Or directly communicating with the car by input made on the handlebars or via gestures. These will be experimentally tested in the simulator and, if we have time, in highly controlled real driving scenarios. The output of this work will be a set new techniques to support the social interaction between autonomous vehicles and cyclists. We currently work with companies such as Jaguar Land Rover and Bosch and our results will have direct application in their products.


[ROT15] Rothenbucher, D., Li, J., Sirkin, D. and Ju, W., Ghost driver: a platform for investigating interactions between pedestrians and driverless vehicles, Adjunct Proceedings of the International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, pp. 44–49, 2015.

[MAT19] Matviienko, A. Brewster, S., Heuten, W. and Boll, S. Comparing unimodal lane keeping cues for child cyclists (, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia

Situating mobile interventions for healthy hydration habits

Esther Papies (School of Psychology) and Matthew Chalmers (School of Computing Science)

Aims and Objectives.

This project will examine which kinds of data to use to best integrate a digital mobile health intervention into a users’ daily life, to lead to habit formation.  Previous research has shown that just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) are more effective than statically controlled interventions (Wang & Miller, 2020).  In other words, health interventions are more likely to lead to behaviour change if they are well situated, i.e., with agency adapted to specific user characteristics, and applied in situations where behaviour change should happen.  However, there is limited evidence on how to best design JITAIs for health apps, so as to create artificial agents that lead to lasting behaviour change through novel habit formation.  In addition, there is no systematic evidence as to which features of situations a health app should use to support a user to perform a healthy behaviour (e.g., time of day, location, mood, activity pattern, social context).  We will address these issues in the under-researched domain of hydration behaviours.  The aim is to establish—given the same intervention—which type of contextual data, or which heterogeneous mix of types of data, is most effective at increasing water consumption, and at establishing situated water drinking habits that persist when the initial engagement with the intervention has ceased.

Background and Novelty.

Mobile health interventions are a powerful new tool in the domain of individual health behaviour change.  Health apps can reach large numbers of users at relatively low cost, and can be tailored to an individual’s health goals and adapted to support users in specific, critical situations.    Identifying the right contextual features to trigger an intervention is critical, because context plays a key role both in triggering unhealthy behaviours, and in developing habits that support the long-term maintenance of healthy behaviours.  A particular challenge,  which existing theories typically don’t yet address, lies in the dynamic nature of health behaviours and their contextual triggers, and in establishing how these behaviours and contexts can best be monitored (Nahum-Shani et al., 2018).  This project will take on these challenges in the domain of hydration, because research suggests that many adults may be chronically dehydrated, with implications for cognitive functioning, mood, and physical health (e.g., risk of diabetes, overweight, kidney damage; see Muñoz et al., 2015; Perrier et al., 2020). Our previous work has shown that healthy hydration is associated with drinking water habitually across many different situations each day (Rodger et al., 2020).  This underlines the particular importance of establishing dynamic markers of situations that are cognitively associated with healthy behaviours so that they can support habit formation.


(1) We will examine the internal (e.g., motivation, mood, interoception) and external (e.g., time of day, location, activity pattern, social context) markers of situations in which high water drinkers consume water, using objective intake monitors.  Then, integrating these findings with theory on habit formation and motivated behaviour (Papies et al., 2020), and using an existing app platform (e.g. AWARE-Light),

(2) we will test which types of data or mixes of data types are most effective in an intervention to increase water consumption in a sample of low water drinkers in the short term, and

(3) whether those same data types are effective at creating hydration habits that persist in the longer term.


This project will lead to presentations and papers of three quantitative subprojects at both Computer Science and Psychology conferences, as well as a possible qualitative contribution on the dynamic nature of habit formation. Impact.  Results from this work will have implication for the design of health behaviour interventions across domains. This work will further contribute to the emerging theoretical understanding of the formation and context sensitivity of the cognitive processes that support healthy habits.  It will explore how sensing and adaptive user modeling can situate both user and AI system in a common contextual frame and whether this facilitates engagement and behavior change.


  1. Muñoz, C. X., Johnson, E. C., McKenzie, A. L., Guelinckx, I., Graverholt, G., Casa, D. J., … Armstrong, L. E. (2015). Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women. Appetite, 92, 81–86.
  2. Nahum-Shani, I., Smith, S. N., Spring, B. J., Collins, L. M., Witkiewitz, K., Tewari, A., & Murphy, S. A. (2018). Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 52(6), 446–462.
  3. Papies, E. K., Barsalou, L. W., & Rusz, D. (2020). Understanding Desire for Food and Drink: A Grounded-Cognition Approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(2), 193–198.
  4. Perrier, E. T., Armstrong, L. E., Bottin, J. H., Clark, W. F., Dolci, A., Guelinckx, I., Iroz, A., Kavouras, S. A., Lang, F., Lieberman, H. R., Melander, O., Morin, C., Seksek, I., Stookey, J. D., Tack, I., Vanhaecke, T., Vecchio, M., & Péronnet, F. (2020). Hydration for health hypothesis: A narrative review of supporting evidence. European Journal of Nutrition.
  5. Rodger, A., Wehbe, L., & Papies, E. K. (2020). “I know it’s just pouring it from the tap, but it’s not easy”: Motivational processes that underlie water drinking. Under Review.
  6. Wang, L., & Miller, L. C. (2020). Just-in-the-Moment Adaptive Interventions (JITAI): A Meta-Analytical Review. Health Communication, 35(12), 1531–1544.

Social and Behavioural Markers of Hydration States

Esther K. Papies (School of Psychology) and Matthew Chalmers (School of Computing Science)

Aims and Objectives.

This project will explore whether data derived from a person’s smartphone can be used to establish that person’s hydration status so that, in a well–guided and responsive way, a system can prompt the person to drink water.  Many people are frequently underhydrated, which has negative physical and mental health consequences.  Low hydration states can manifest in impaired cognitive and physical performance, experiences of fatigue or lethargy, and negative affect (e.g, Muñoz et al., 2015; Perrier et al., 2020).  Here, we will establish whether such social and behavioural markers of dehydration can be inferred from a user’s smartphone, and which of these markers, or their combination, are the best predictors of hydration state (Aim 1).  Sophisticated user models of hydration states could also be adapted over time, and help to predict possible instances of dehydration in advance (Aim 2).  This would be useful because many individuals find it difficult to identify when they need to drink, and could benefit from clear, personalized indicators of dehydration.  In addition, smart phones could then be used to prompt users to drink water, once a state of dehydration has been detected, or when dehydration is likely to occur.  Thus, we will also test how hydration information should be communicated to users to prompt attitude and behaviour change and ultimately, improve hydration behaviour (Aim 3).  Throughout, we will implement data collection, modelling, and feedback on smartphones in a secure way that respects and protects a user’s privacy.

Background and Novelty.

The data that can be derived from smart phones (and related digital services) ranges from low level data on sensors (e.g. accelerometers) to patterns of app usage and social interaction. As such, ‘digital phenotyping’ is a rich source of information on an individual’s social and physical behaviours, and affective states. Some recent survey papers this burgeoning field include Thieme et al. on machine learning in mental health (2020), Chancellor and de Choudhury on using social media data to predict mental health status (2020), Melcher et al. on digital phenotyping of college students (2020), and Kumar et al. on toolkits and frameworks for data collection (2020). Here, we propose that these types of data may also reflect a person’s hydration state. Part of the project’s novelty is in its exploration of a wider range of phone-derived data as a resource for system agency than prior work in this general area, as well as pioneering work specifically on hydration.  We will relate cognitive and physical performance, fatigue, lethargy and affect to patterns in phone-derived data.  We will test whether such data can be harnessed to provide people with personalized, external, actionable indicators of their physiological state, i.e. to facilitate useful behaviour change. This would have clear advantages over existing indicators of dehydration, such as thirst cues or urine colour, which are easy to ignore or override, and/or difficult for individuals to interpret (Rodger et al, 2020).


We will build on an existing mobile computing framework (e.g. AWARE-Light) to collect reports of a participant’s fluid intake, and to integrate them with phone-derived data.  We will attempt to model users’ hydration states, and validate this against self-reported thirst and urine frequency, and self-reported and photographed urine colour (Paper 1).  We will then examine in prospective studies if these models can be used to predict future dehydration states (Paper 2).  Finally, we will examine effective ways to provide feedback and prompt water drinking, based on individual user models (Paper 3).


This project will lead to presentations and papers at both Computer Science and Psychology conferences outlining the principles of using sensing data to understand physiological states, and to facilitate health behaviour change.


Results from this work will have implications for the use of a broad range of data in health behaviour interventions across domains, as well as for our understanding of the processes underlying behaviour change. This project would also outline new research directions for studying the effects of hydration in daily life.


Chancellor, S., & De Choudhury, M. (2020). Methods in predictive techniques for mental health status on social media: a critical review. Npj Digital Medicine, 3(1), 1–11.

Melcher, J., Hays, R., & Torous, J. (2020). Digital phenotyping for mental health of college students: a clinical review. Evidence Based Mental Health, 4, ebmental–2020–300180–6.

Muñoz, C. X., Johnson, E. C., McKenzie, A. L., Guelinckx, I., Graverholt, G., Casa, D. J., … Armstrong, L. E. (2015). Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women. Appetite, 92, 81–86.

Rodger, A., Wehbe, L., & Papies, E. K. (2020). “I know it’s just pouring it from the tap, but it’s not easy”: Motivational processes that underlie water drinking. Under Review.

Perrier, E. T., Armstrong, L. E., Bottin, J. H., Clark, W. F., Dolci, A., Guelinckx, I., Iroz, A., Kavouras, S. A., Lang, F., Lieberman, H. R., Melander, O., Morin, C., Seksek, I., Stookey, J. D., Tack, I., Vanhaecke, T., Vecchio, M., & Péronnet, F. (2020). Hydration for health hypothesis: A narrative review of supporting evidence. European Journal of Nutrition.

Thieme, A., Belgrave, D., & Doherty, G. (2020). Machine Learning in Mental Health. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 27(5), 1–53.

Social Interaction via Touch Interactive Volummetric 3D Virtual Agents

Ravinder Dahiya (School of Engineering) and Philippe Schyns (School of Psychology)

Vision and touch based interactions are fundamental modes of interaction between humans and between humans and the real world. Several portable devices use these modes to display gestures that communicate social messages such as emotions. Recently, non-volumetric 3D displays have attracted considerable interest because they give users a 3D visual experience – for example, 3D movies provide viewers with a perceptual sensation of depth via a pair of glasses. Using a newly developed haptics-based holographic 3D volumetric display, this project will develop these new forms of social interactions with virtual agents. Unlike various VR tools that require headsets (which can lead to motion sickness), here the interaction with 3D virtual objects will be less restricted, closer to its natural form, and, critically, give the user the illusion that the virtual agent is physically present. The experiments will involve interactions with holographically displayed virtual human faces and bodies engaging in various social gestures. To this end, the simulated 2D images showing these various gestures will be displayed mid-air in 3D. For enriched interaction and enhanced realism, this project will also involve hand gesture recognition and controlling haptic feedback (i.e. air patterns) to simulate the surface of several classes of virtual objects. This fundamental study is transformative for sectors where physical interaction with virtual objects is critical, including medical, mental health, sports, education, heritage, security, and entertainment.

Vision-based AI for automatic detection of individual and social behaviour in Rodents

Marwa Mahmoud (School of Computing Science) and Cassandra Sampaio Batista (School of Psychology)

Rodents are the most extensively used models to understand the cellular and molecular underpinnings of behaviour, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, as well as, for the development of interventions and pharmacological treatments. Screening behavioural phenotypes in rodents is very time consuming, as a large battery of cognitive and motor behavioural tests is necessary. Further, standard behavioural testing usually requires the removal of the animal from their home-cage environment and individual testing, therefore excluding the assessment of spontaneous social interactions. Monitoring of home-cage spontaneous behaviours, such as eating, grooming, sleeping and social interactions, has already proven to be sensitive to different models of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, home-cage monitoring can distinguish different mouse strains and models of autistic-like behaviour (Jhuang et al., 2010) and detect early alterations in sleep patterns before behavioural alterations in a rodent model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Golini et al., 2020).

Most of the traditional home-cage monitoring systems use sensors and therefore are restricted on the type of activities that it can detect, requiring the animals to interact with the sensors (Goulding et al., 2008; Kiryk et al., 2020; Voikar and Gaburro, 2020). The recent development of vision-based computing and machine learning opens up the possibility to monitor and potentially label all home-cage behaviours automatically (Jhuang et al., 2010; Mathis et al., 2018). Still, most automatic detection machine learning-based work has focused on movements, mainly joints and movements trajectory (Mathis et al., 2018) rather than social or group behaviour.


The aim of this PhD is to leverage the advancements of computer vision for animal behaviour understanding (Pessanha et. al. 2020) and build machine learning models that can automatically interpret and classify different individual and social behaviours by analysing videos collected using continuous monitoring.


    1. Define a set of behavioural and social cues that are relevant to understanding their interactions and group behaviour. This will include building a dataset of their spontaneous social behaviour.
    2. Developing computer vision and machine learning models to automatically detect and classify these behaviours.
    3. Validate and evaluate the developed tools on disorder models (e.g learning deficits, stroke, etc.)?
        Expected outcome/impact


      1. The models developed in this project will have wide applications, both in academic research as well as industry, not only by providing tools for automatic behavioural phenotyping but also as means to measure animal welfare during these experiments and procedures.


Golini, E., Rigamonti, M., Iannello, F., De Rosa, C., Scavizzi, F., Raspa, M., Mandillo, S., 2020. A Non-invasive Digital Biomarker for the Detection of Rest Disturbances in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of ALS. Front Neurosci 14, 896.

Goulding, E.H., Schenk, A.K., Juneja, P., MacKay, A.W., Wade, J.M., Tecott, L.H., 2008. A robust automated system elucidates mouse home cage behavioral structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 20575-20582.

Jhuang, H., Garrote, E., Mutch, J., Yu, X., Khilnani, V., Poggio, T., Steele, A.D., Serre, T., 2010. Automated home-cage behavioural phenotyping of mice. Nat Commun 1, 68.

Kiryk, A., Janusz, A., Zglinicki, B., Turkes, E., Knapska, E., Konopka, W., Lipp, H.P., Kaczmarek, L., 2020. IntelliCage as a tool for measuring mouse behavior – 20 years perspective. Behav Brain Res 388, 112620.

Mathis, A., Mamidanna, P., Cury, K.M., Abe, T., Murthy, V.N., Mathis, M.W., Bethge, M., 2018. DeepLabCut: markerless pose estimation of user-defined body parts with deep learning. Nat Neurosci 21, 1281-1289.

Voikar, V., Gaburro, S., 2020. Three Pillars of Automated Home-Cage Phenotyping of Mice: Novel Findings, Refinement, and Reproducibility Based on Literature and Experience. Front Behav Neurosci 14, 575434.

Pessanha F., McLennan K., Mahmoud M. Towards automatic monitoring of disease progression in sheep: A hierarchical model for sheep facial expressions analysis from video in IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Buenos Aires, May 2020

Who you gonna call? developing rat-to-rat communication interfaces

Cassandra Sampaio Batista (School of Psychology) and Ilyena Hirskyj-Douglas (School of Computing Science)

Main aims and objectives

Many rats live in laboratory conditions residing in cages in small groups or alone (such as after surgery, dominance issues, safety, or research purposes). Yet, rats are highly social animals with complex social skills needing the company of others. Rats become attached and form solid bonds and large communities in the wild. Thus, while the research done on laboratory rats is vital to human and animal health, their social living conditions are not always ideal. The main aim of this project is to increase rats’ sociality by exploring how rats can use computers that have audio, visual and olfactory output to communicate with other rats. We will then use this output to develop an artificial rat agent to support lonely rats autonomously. While researchers have investigated how rats react to screen systems [1], dog-to-dog interfaces [2] and dog-to-human video interfaces [3], there is no research undertaken around rat-to-rat and rat-to-computer interaction.

Proposed Methods and Outputs

This research is at the intersection of animal-computer interaction and neuroscience, exploring rats’ behaviour, brain, vocal analysis, and computer usage. Using novel devices to enable rats to virtually calling, we will look at a) how connecting to other rats virtually can improve a rats life, b) how different modalities (audio, visual and olfactory) support rats’ social communication, and c) how rats interact virtually with known and unknown rats. To enable rat-to-rat communication, novel remote calling devices will be developed that facilitate rats to trigger and answer calls. The rats’ behaviour and vocal analysis (such as [4]) and brain neuroimaging [5] will be studied to assess the impact of these remote interactions. The results of these studies will inform on how to support rat communication virtually and with virtual agents, and on the impact of rat-computer interfaces on behaviour, social interactions, and brain function and structure. The student will need to apply for a Personal Home Office Licence (PIL) as part of their first year of study and will be working directly with laboratory rats, programming, building devices and encoding the rats’ behaviours. The project is of great industrial and academic interest in social behaviour, laboratory and domesticated rodent welfare as it will provide key insights and tools for supporting their social needs.


[1] Yakura T, Yokota H, Ohmichi Y, Ohmichi M, Nakano T, et al. (2018) Visual recognition of mirror, video-recorded, and still images in rats. PLOS ONE 13(3): e0194215.

[2] Hirskyj-Douglas, I and Lucero, A.(2019). On the Internet, Nobody Knows You’re a Dog… Unless You’re Another Dog. In 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings (CHI 2019), May 4–9, 2019, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. ACM, New York, NY, USA.

[3] Hirskyj-Douglas, I., Piituanen, R., Lucero, A. (2021). Forming the Dog Internet: Prototyping a Dog-to-Human Video Call Device. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 5, ISS, Article 494 (November 2021), 20 pages. DOI:

[4] Coffey, K.R., Marx, R.G. & Neumaier, J.F. DeepSqueak: a deep learning-based system for detection and analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations. Neuropsychopharmacol. 44, 859–868 (2019).

[5] Sallet, J., Mars, R.B., Noonan, M.P., Andersson, J.L., O’Reilly, J.X., Jbabdi, S., Croxson, P.L., Jenkinson, M., Miller, K.L., Rushworth, M.F., 2011. Social network size affects neural circuits in macaques. Science 334, 697-700.